College of Natural & Agricultural Sciences

John Heraty

John M. Heraty

Professor of Entomology

BSc Biology 1976

University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada

MSc Entomology/Systematics 1985

University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada

PhD Entomology/Systematics 1990

Texas A&M University

Research Areas

Morphological and molecular systematics of Chalcidoidea Cladistic methodology; Biological control Evolutionary biology.

Contact Information
Entomology Bldg. 138
(951) 827-6351

Research Specialization - Our research focuses on the systematics, phylogeny and biogeography of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Chalcidoid wasps rank numerically among the largest groups of insects, with estimates of as many as 100,000 species; however, the fauna is poorly known. Most are specialized parasites, and the majority of successful biological control projects have utilized these minute wasps to achieve partial or complete control of insect pests. One area of our research is on the Eucharitidae, a specialized group of ant parasities. The taxonomy of this group is poorly understood, and presently, only a small proportion of the known species can be identified. The larvae of Eucharitidae exhibit several peculiar behaviors associated with gaining access to the ant host, and studies on higher classification using cladistic methodology have led to a greater understanding of the evolution of behavioral patterns within the family, This knowledge has proved useful in studies on other groups of Hymenoptera that parasitize eusocial insects and for postulating a biogeographic hypothesis for the family. A second area of research emphasizes the systematics of the Aphelinidae, which are generally parasites of aphids, whiteflies and scale insects. Most analyses of relationships have been based on internal and external morphological traits, but molecular techniques are now being applied to understanding the higher phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea and the relationships among species of the genus Encarsia (Aphelinidae). Other research interests include studies of the diversity of Hymenoptera on the Galapagos Islands, internal studies of the skeleto-musculature of Hymenoptera and parasitoid interactions with leafmining moths of the family Gracillariidae. All of our studies incorporate morphological, biological or molecular information into analyses that are used to formulate hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships and the evolution of behavioral patterns. The evolution of host associations, an area of paramount importance to biological control programs, is central to all of our studies. This is a fascinating area of research demonstrating the utility and impact of systematics to almost every area of science.

Awards Received

1993-1994 - Smithsonian Institute Postdoctoral Fellowship 
1991 - Honorary Research Associate, Royal Ontario Museum,


Bhanu, B, R. Li, J. Heraty and E. Murray. 2009. Automated classification of skippers based on parts representation. American Entomologist 54: 228-231. 

Kirkland, C.A., R.A. Burks, D.H. Headrick and J.M. Heraty. 2009. A review of Hadrotrichodes waukheon LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae): A possible biological control agent of Marmara gulosa Guillén & Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in San Joaquin Valley Citrus. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 111: 7-11. 

Hoddle, M.S., J.M. Heraty, P.F. Rugman-Jones, L.A. Mound and R.S. Stouthamer. 2008. Relationships among species of Scirtothrips Shull 1909 (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, Thripinae) using molecular and morphological data. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101: 491-500. 

Wang, Q., J. Millar, J. Mottern, J. Heraty, S. Triapitsyn and T.D. Paine. 2008. Selection and collection of a strain of the egg parasitoid Avetianella longoi that attacks Phoracantha recurva in Australia. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 1771-1778. 

Torréns, J., Heraty, J.M., Fidalgo, P. 2008. Biology and description of a new species of Lophyrocera Cameron (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae from Argentina. Zootaxa 1871: 56-62. 

Buffington, M., F. Nylander and J.M. Heraty. 2007. The phylogeny, evolution of Figitidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea). Cladistics 23: 1-19. 

Guillén, M., J. M. Heraty and A. Urbaneja. 2007. Fecundity and development of Cirrospilus coachellae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Marmara gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 100: 664-669. 

Guillén, M., R.F. Luck and J.M. Heraty. 2007. Preferred host stages, clutch size and sex allocation by Cirrospilus coachellae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Marmara gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). 
Biocontrol. 40: 264-272. 

Hansen, I.A., D.H. Sieglaff, J.B. Munro, S.-H. Shiao, J. Cruz, I.W. Lee, J. Heraty and A.S. Raikhel. 2007. Forkhead transcription factors regulate mosquito reproduction. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 37: 985-997. 

Heraty, J.M. and D.C. Darling. 2007. A new genus and species of Perilampidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) with uncertain placement within the family. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario 138: 33-47. 

Heraty, J.M., J.B. Woolley, K.M. Hopper, D.L. Hawks, J.-W. Kim and M. Buffington. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of cryptic species in the Aphelinus varipes complex (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 45: 480-493. 

Owen, A., J. George, J. Pinto and J.M. Heraty. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of the Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), with an evaluation of the utility of their male genitalia for higher level classification. Systematic Entomology 32: 227-251. 

Torréns, J., J.M. Heraty and P. Fidalgo. 2007. Biology and description of a new species of Laurella Heraty (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) from Argentina. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 109: 45-51. 

Van Dam, A.R., M.H. Van Dam and J.M. Heraty. 2007. A comparison of pyrethrum fogging and sweep netting of Hymenoptera in southern California chaparral. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 16: 192-205. 

Perez-Lachaud, G., J.M. Heraty, A. Carmichael, and J.P. Lachaud. 2006. Biology and behavior of Kapala (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) attacking Ectatomma and Gnamptogenys (Formicidae: Ectatomminae) in Chiapas, Mexico. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99: 567-576. 

Smith, A.B.T., D.C. Hawks and J.M. Heraty. 2006. An overview of the classification and evolution of the major scarab beetle clades (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) based on preliminary molecular analyses. Coleopterists Society Monograph 5: 35-46. 

Triapitsyn, S.V., D.B. Vickerman, J.M. Heraty and G.A. Logarzo. 2006. A new species of Gonatocerus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) parasitic on proconine sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in the New World. Zootaxa 1158: 55-67. 

Gillespie, J.J., J.B. Munro, J.M. Heraty, M.J. Yoder, A.K. Owen and A. Carmichael. 2005. A secondary structural model of the 28S rRNA expansion segments D2 and D3 from chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): Implications for multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny reconstruction. Molecular Biology and Evolution 22: 1593-1608. 

Heraty, J. M. 2005. A revision of the genus Isomerala (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae). Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae 69: 137-145. 
Guillén, M. and J.M. Heraty. 2004. Instar differences in Marmara gulosa Guillén and Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97: 1227-1232. 

Heraty, J., D. Hawks, J.S. Kostecki and A. Carmichael. 2004. Phylogeny and behaviour of the Gollumiellinae, a new subfamily of the ant-parasitic Eucharitidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Systematic Entomology 29: 544-559. 

Guillén, M., J.M. Heraty and R.F. Luck. 2003. Seasonal variation and infestation incidence by Marmara gulosa Guillén and Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on grapefruit in the Coachella Valley of California (USA). Journal of Economic Entomology 96: 577-583. 

Heraty, J.M. and D.J. Quicke. 2003. Phylogenetic implications of ovipositor structure in Eucharitidae and Perilampidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Journal of Natural History 37: 1751-1764. 

Heraty, J.M. 2003. Three new species of Gollumiella Hedqvist (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae). Zootaxa 497: 1-10. 

Burks, R.D. and J.M. Heraty. 2002. 
Morphometric analysis of four species of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) attacking codling moth and other tortricid pests in North America. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 11: 167-187. 

Gates, M.W., J.M. Heraty, M.E. Schauff, D.L. Wagner, J.B. Whitfield and D.B. Wahl. 2002. Survey of the parasitic Hymenoptera on leafminers in California. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 11: 213-270. 

Babcock, C.S., J.M. Heraty, P.J. De Barro, F. Driver, and S. Schmidt. 2001. Preliminary phylogeny of Encarsia Förster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) based on morphology and 28S rDNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18: 306-323. 

Babcock, C.S. and J.M. Heraty. 2000. Molecular markers for the discrimination of Encarsia formosa and Encarsia luteola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93: 738-744. 

Guillén, M., D. Davis, and J.M. Heraty. 2001. A new species of Marmara (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) infesting Citrus in the southwestern United States. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 103: 636-654. 

Heraty, J. M. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of Oraseminae (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93: 374-390. 

Heraty, J.M. and A.P. Polaszek. 2000. Morphometric analysis and descriptions of selected species in the Encarsia strenua species group (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 9: 142-169

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