Department of Entomology


Eliizabeth Grafton-Cardwellucr entomology

Cooperative Extension Specialist

Location: Kearney Ag. Ctr., 9240 S. Riverbend Parlier CA 93648
(559) 646-6591


Research Specialization – integrated pest management. My research program studies strategies for integrated pest management of San Joaquin Valley citrus. We establish or verify economic thresholds for key pests, study the efficacy of natural enemies, develop pheromone trapping systems, screen the efficacy and selectivity of new insecticides, and test pests for resistance to insecticides. Examples of research projects include; release of predatory mites for control of thrips and mites in nursery citrus, validation of degree-day units and pheromone traps for citrus cutworm monitoring, study of the effects of insect growth regulators on vedalia beetle a natural enemy of cottony cushion scale, and pesticide resistance monitoring of California red scale.

Former Institution

 Department of Entomology, UC Davis


AB Biology 1977
University of California, Berkeley
MS Entomology 1980
Purdue University
PhD Entomology 1985
University of California, Berkeley


2010 Pacific Branch of the Entomological Society of America Recognition Award in Entomology

2010 John V. Osmun Alumni Professional Achievement Award in Entomology, Purude University

2008 California Citrus Industry, A.G. Salter Award

2006 Entomological Society of America, Excellence in Pest Management

2004 Citrus Research Board, Award of Excellence for Exceptional Service to the California Citrus Industry.

2003 Friends of Agricultural Extension Award for Outstanding Achievement

2003 Entomological Society of America Pacific Branch Distinguished Achievement in Extension

Research Area

The goal of my research and extension program is to help growers understand and utilize Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methods to manage arthropod pests of citrus in the San Joaquin Valley of California. To accomplish this, my research encompasses a variety of different subject areas including screening the efficacy of new pesticides against pests and for selectivity favoring natural enemies, monitoring for pesticide resistance in pests, developing and sampling methods and economic thresholds, utilizing pheromone trapping and degree-day estimations to predict when populations of pests will be damaging, and release and augmentation of natural enemies. I have studied pest mites, predacious mites, citrus thrips, lepidopteran pests, armored scale, soft scale, ants, glassy-winged sharpshooters, citrus peelminer, and all their associated natural enemies in both production citrus orchards and citrus nurseries. My goal is to move citrus growers towards a greater adoption of IPM techniques and a reduction of broad spectrum pesticide use while maintaining economic production.


Ouyang Y., Chueca P., Scott S. J., Montez G. H., and E. E. Grafton-Cardwell. 2010.  Chlorpyrifos Bioassay and Resistance Monitoring of San Joaquin Valley California Citricola Scale Populations. J. Econ. Entomol. 103:1400-1404.

McElfresh, J. S., J. A. Moreira, E. E. Grafton-Cardwell, D. H. Headrick, J. Heraty, M. Guillen, and J. G. Millar.  2008.  Novel Lepidopteran Sex Pheromone Components from the Citrus Peelminer Marmara gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).  J. Econ. Entomol.102:574-584.

Morse, J.G., Luck, R.F., and Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. 2007. The evolution of biologically-based integrated pest management in California citrus: history and perspective. UC Plant Protection Quarterly 16(4)/17(1):1-11. http://www.uckac.edu/ppq/PDF/oct2006v16_04_--jan2007v17_01_.pdf

Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., K. E. Godfrey, M. E. Rogers, C. C. Childers and P. A. Stansly. 2006. Asian citrus psyllid. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 8131. Oakland, CA. 8 pp. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/8205.pdf

Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., J. E. Lee, J. Stewart, and K. Olsen. 2006. Role of two insect growth regulators in integrated pest management of citrus scales. J. Econ. Entomol. 99: 733-744

Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., Gu, P., and G. Montez. 2005. Effects of Temperature on Development of Vedalia Beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant). Biological Control 32: 473-478.

Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., L. D. Godfrey, W. E. Chaney, and W. J. Bentley. 2005. Various novel insecticides are less toxic to humans, more specific to key pests. Calif. Agri. Cal Ag 59 (1): 29-34.

Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., K. E. Godfrey, J. E. Pena, C. W. McCoy, and R. F. Luck. 2004. Diaprepes Root Weevil. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 8131. Oakland, CA. 8 pp. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/8131.pdf

Grafton-Cardwell, E.E., Y. Ouyang, R.A. Striggow, J.A. Christiansen and C.S. Black. 2004. The role of esterase enzymes in monitoring for resistance of California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Hompotera: Diaspididae) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. J. Econ. Entomol. 97(2): 606-613.

Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. and P. Gu. 2003. Conserving vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), in citrus: A continuing challenge as new insecticides gain registration. J. Econ. Entomol. 96: 1388-1398.

Grafton-Cardwell, E.E., C.A. Reagan and Y. Ouyang. 2003. Insecticide treatments disinfest nursery citrus of glassy-winged sharpshooter. Calif. Agric. 57(4): 128-131.

Grafton-Cardwell, E.E., N.V. O'Connell, C.E. Kallsen and J.G. Morse. 2003. A photographic guide to citrus fruit scaring. DANR publication 8090. 8 pp. Also available as a web-based publication.

Martinez-Ferrar, M.T., E.E. Grafton-Cardwell and H.H. Shorey. 2003. Disruption of parasitism of the California red scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) by three ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Biological Control. 26: 279-286.

Grafton-Cardwell, E.E., G.H. Montez and J.E. McClain. 2001. Lower developmental threshold of and degree-day prediction of larval emergence of citrus cutworm, Egira curialis (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Agric. and Urban Entomol. 18: 78-35.

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University of California, Riverside
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Riverside, CA 92521
Tel: (951) 827-1012

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417 Entomology Bldg.

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