Entomology Safety


Alec Gerry

Alec Gerry

Professor of Entomology and Extension Specialist

BA Biological Sciences 1990

University of California, Berkeley

PhD Medical & Veterinary Entomology 1999

University of California, Riverside

Research Areas

Biology, ecology, and management of pest and vector insects associated with animals

Medical and Veterinary Entomology

Contact Information
Entomology 367
(951) 827-7054

Pest arthropods and disease vectors pose very serious problems to animal agriculture, often resulting in substantial economic losses for producers. Pest arthropods often impact the growth or productivity of animals due to the constant aggravation caused by their feeding on or annoyance to animals. In addition, diseases transmitted by vector arthropods may result in mortality or morbidity of infected animals. Arthropod pests associated with confined animal operations are also problematic when they exist in numbers great enough to pose a nuisance to agricultural workers or to nearby residential neighborhoods. Research and extension efforts in my laboratory are focused on the biology, ecology, and integrated management of pest arthropods and disease vectors associated with animal agriculture.  The long-term objective of my laboratory is to improve integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for the control of pest and vector arthropods on animal operations. Chemical control of pest arthropods on animal operations is becoming more difficult, as loss of chemical products and increasing arthropod resistance are reducing the number of chemical options. A fresh look at non-chemical management techniques is sorely needed. We are interested in developing novel strategies to reduce the production and dispersal of arthropod pests and disease vectors associated with animal agriculture. Studies conducted are field oriented with results that can be immediately applied by the animal agriculture industry. My laboratory also has an interest in developing a better understanding of the role arthropods play in the persistence and transmission of animal pathogens. While arthropods are well known vectors of many animal pathogens, their involvement in the maintenance, dispersal, and transmission of other animal pathogens has been postulated but not demonstrated (e.g. exotic Newcastle disease virus). To provide appropriate disease control recommendations, the importance of arthropod involvement to pathogen transmission must be known relative to other means of pathogen transmission. Recent research in the laboratory has focused on the dispersal of nuisance flies from confined animal operations. As the rural-urban interface increases (with decreasing buffer zones), fly dispersal from animal operations continues to result in nuisance to neighboring residential communities. Although animal operations generally existed before urban encroachment, producers are increasingly being blamed for failure to control nuisance flies. We hope to develop a better understanding of fly dispersal behavior in order to mitigate their dispersal into neighboring communities.  


Lura, T., Cummings, R., Velten, R. K., De Collibus, K., Morgan, T., Nguyen, K., Gerry, A. C.Host (Avian) Biting Preference of Southern California Culex Mosquitoes. Journal of Medical Entomology. (Submitted 08/15/2011. 27 manuscript pages.)

Maas, J. and A. C. Gerry. Beef Cattle Fly Control in 2011. California Cattlemen's Magazine. (Submitted 03/14/2011 )

Gerry, A. C., G. Higginbotham, L. Pereira, A. Lam, and C. Shelton. Evaluation of Surveillance Methods for Monitoring House Fly (Musca domestica) Abundance and Activity on Large Commercial Dairy Operations. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 104: 1093-1102.

Gerry, A.C. Issued 2011. 2010 Accomplishments of the USDA S1030 Multistate Research Program. USDA-CRIS, Washington, DC. USDA-NIFA. 8p

Mohr, R., B. A. Mullens, and A. C. Gerry. 2011.  Evaluation of ammonia, human sweat, and bovine blood as attractants for the female canyon fly, Fannia conspicua (Diptera: Muscidae) in southern California. Journal of Vector Ecology.  Vol. 36: 55-58.

Mohr, R., B. A. Mullens, and A. C. Gerry. 2011. Diel Patterns of Female Host-Seeking, Male Swarming, and Sugar Feeding in the “Canyon Fly”, Fannia conspicua (Diptera: Muscidae) in Southern California. Journal of Medical Entomology. Vol. 48: p.188-195.

Wasik, D., Gerry, A. 2010. Behavioral adaptations of house flies (Musca domestica L.) to avoid the insecticide imidacloprid. Undergraduate Research Journal, Vol. IV. University of California, Riverside. p.39-43. Website: http://ugrj.ucr.edu/.

Mullens, B. A., A. C. Gerry, and A. N. Diniz. 2010. Field and Laboratory Trials of a Novel Metaflumizone House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Bait in California. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 103: 2 p.550-556.

Gerry, A.C., A. C. Wayadande, J. L.  Talley, and L. P. Wasala. 2010. Protecting food crops from contamination with filth fly transmitted human pathogens. HortScience 45(8). p.S 33. Annual Conference of the American Society for Horticultural Science. Palm Springs, CA.

Higginbotham, G., A. C. Gerry, A., C. Collar, and L.  Reed. 2010. Nuisance fly production capacity of three types of manurehandling systems. J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 93, E-Suppl. 1. p.610.

Mullens, B.A., and A. C Gerry. 2010. Bluetongue Virus and Culicoides in California: the Next Problem for MVCAC?  Proceedings of the 78th Annual Conference of the Mosquito and Vector Control Association of California . Proceedings and Papers of the Mosquito and Vector Control Association of California. p.45-46. Annual Conference of the MVCAC. Sacramento, CA. 02/10/2010

Mullens, B. A., A. C. Gerry, V. Sarto i Monteys, M. Pinna, and A. Gonzalez. 2010. Field Studies on Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Activity and Response to Deltamethrin Applications to Sheep in Northeastern Spain. Journal of Medical Entomology. Vol. 47: 1 p.106-110.

Calvo, M. S., A. C. Gerry, J. McGarvey, T. L. Armitage,F. M. Mitloehner. 2010. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance. Journal of Dairy Science. 93: 1059-1064. 

Gerry A, Zhang D. Behavioral resistance of house flies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) to Imidacloprid. Army Med Dept J. July-September 2009: 54-59.

Weirauch, C. and A. C. Gerry.  Bed Bugs.  2009. In: Encyclopedia of Insects. (R. H. Resh and R. T. Cardé, eds).  Academic Press.

Gerry, A. C., V. Sarto I Monteys, J.-O. Moreno Vidal, O. Francino, and B. A. Mullens. 2009. Biting rates of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on sheep in northeastern Spain in relation to midge capture using UV light and carbon dioxide-baited traps. Journal of Medical Entomology. 46(3): 615-624. 

Talley, J. L., A. C. Wayadande, L. P. Wasala, A. C. Gerry, J. Fletcher, U. DeSilva, and S. E. Gilliland. 2009. Association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with filth flies (Muscidae and Calliphoridae) captured in leafy greens fields and experimental transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to spinach leaves by house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Food Protection. 72(7): 1547-1552. 

Higginbotham, G. E., L. N. Pereira, and A. C. Gerry. 2009. Improving IPM of house flies at commercial dairy operations through pest monitoring and determination of nuisance threshold. J. Dairy Sci. 92: 413, E-Suppl. 1. 

Gerry, A. C., T. M. Nawaey, P. B. Sanghrajka, J. Wisniewska, and P. Hullinger. 2008. Comparison of a Horse and a Carbon Dioxide-Baited Suction Trap for Collecting Hematophagous Diptera in Southern California with a Discussion of Relevance to West Nile Virus Epidemiology. Journal of Medical Entomology. 45(1): 115-124. 

Kaufmann, P. E., A. C. Gerry, D. A. Rutz, and J. G. Scott. 2008. Monitoring susceptibility of house flies (Musca domestica L.) in the United States to Imidacloprid. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology. 23(4): 195-200. 

Chakrabarti, S., D. J. King, C. J. Cardona, and A. C. Gerry. 2008. Persistence of exotic Newcastle disease virus (ENDV) in laboratory infected Musca domestica and Fannia canicularis. Avian Diseases. 52: 375-379. 

Gerry, A. C., N. G. Peterson, and B. A. Mullens. 2007. Predicting and Controlling Stable Flies on California Dairies. Oakland: University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Publication 8258. pp. 1-11. 

Gerry, A. C. and N. G. Peterson. 2007. Stable Flies and March Rains. Progressive Dairyman Magazine. Progressive Dairyman. March Issue. pp. 1-2. 

Deacutis, J. M., C. A. Leichter, A. C. Gerry, D. A. Rutz, W. D. Watson, C. J. Geden, and J. G. Scott. 2007. Susceptibility of field collected houseflies to spinosad before and after a season of use. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology. 23: 105-110. 

Butler, S. M., A. C. Gerry, and B. A. Mullens. 2007. House fly (Diptera: Muscidae) activity near baits containing (Z)-9-tricosene and efficacy of commercial toxic fly baits on a southern California dairy. Journal of Economic Entomology. 100(4): 1489-1495. 

Chakrabarti, S., D. J. King, C. Afonso, D. Swayne, C. J. Cardona, D. R. Kuney, and A. C. Gerry. 2007. Detection and isolation of exotic Newcastle disease virus (ENDV) from field collected flies. Journal of Medical Entomology. 44(5): 840-844. 

Mullens, B. A. and A. C. Gerry. 2006. Life History and Seasonal Abundance of Canyon Flies (Fannia Benjamini Complex) (Diptera: Muscidae) in Southern California. Journal of Medical Entomology 43(2): 192-199. 

Gerry, A. C. and B. A. Mullens. 2006. Adult Canyon Fly (Fannia Benjamini Complex) (Diptera: Muscidae) Activity in Southern California and Use of Carbon Dioxide as an Attractant. Journal of Medical Entomology 43(3): 467-472. 

Gerry, A.C., X. Zhang, G. Leng, A.D. Inman and R.I. Krieger. 2005. Low pilot exposure to pyrethrin during ultra low volume (ULV) aerial insecticide application for control of adult mosquitoes. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 21(3): 291-295. 

Debboun, M., E.E. Stanwix, J.A. Humphries, J.B. Caci, D.D. Kuhr, and A.C. Gerry. 2005. West Nile virus surveillance at U.S. military installations during 2003 and 2004 by the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventative Medicine-South. United States Army Medical Department (AMEDD) Journal. PB 8-05-7/8/9: 73-80. 

Gerry, A.C., X. Zhang, T. Walker, S. Frederickson, M. Metzger, R. Hu and R.I. Krieger. 2005. Low worker exposure to diazinon during flea control operations in response to plague epizootic. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 74: 391-398. 

McCrea, B., J. S. Jeffrey, R. A. Ernst, and A. C. Gerry. 2005. Common Lice and Mites of Poultry: Identification and Treatment. Oakland: University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Publication 8162. pp. 1-7. 

Gerry, A., V. Mellano, and D. Kuney. 2005. Outdoor composting of poultry manure reduces nuisance fly production. Report to Department of Public Works, San Diego County, CA. pp 1-7. Available at: http://www.sdcounty.ca.gov/dpw/recycling/pdf/manure.p